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就业格局变化与存在问题
文章作者:张车伟  发布时间:2012-12-06 11:34:48

摘要:在一个国家的发展过程中,就业格局往往会发生两个重要转变,一个是从农业主导的就业转变为非农业主导的就业,另一个是从以自雇就业为主向以受雇就业为主的转变。如果两个转变是同步的,则社会发展就步入健康轨道;如果不同步,就会带来严重的发展问题。通过观察和分析中国就业格局所发生的上述两个转变,本文发现中国就业的非农化趋势较快,而就业雇员化趋势却相对较慢,这意味着从农业转移到非农业部门的就业岗位并没有同步转化为受雇的公司化就业,大量农村转移劳动力进入城镇后只能从事非正规自雇的公司化就业,大量农村转移劳动力进入城镇后只能从事非正规的自雇就业,这是中国当前面临的最突出的就业矛盾和问题。提高就业的雇员化程度因而是中国今后最重要的发展任务。

 

Changes of Employment Pattern and Its Problems in China

Abstract: In the course of development, two transitions in employment pattern generally take place: one is the transition from dominance of agricultural employment to dominance of non-agricultural employment; and the other is the transition from dominance of self-employment to dominance of waged-employment. If the two processes are coordinated each other, the development will be smooth, and otherwise it will be a problem. Based on the observation on the change of employment pattern in China, this study finds that the trend towards non-agricultural employment is faster than that towards waged-employment, which suggests that a large number of rural migrants have not been employed as waged-workers, and their employment status of self-employment have just changed from agriculture to non-agricultural sectors. This is a severe problem existing in China’s employment, and needs to be addressed in the course of development. 

 


  

文章出处:中国人口与劳动问题报告No.13,第十三章