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收入分配问题与要素资本化——我国收入分配问题的“症结”在哪里?
文章作者:张车伟;程杰  发布时间:2015-11-27 09:27:51

内容提要:把中国的收入分配问题置于国际视野下观察会发现,初次分配后的收入差距中国和大多数发达国家并无太大不同,但再分配后,发达国家收入差距大大降低,而中国的收入差距状况基本上没有什么变化;无法通过再分配手段缩小收入差距是当前中国收入差距难以缩小的重要原因。然而,中国收入分配问题并不仅仅是收入差距过大,更关键的问题还在于分配不公,其来源主要是要素资本化过程中的收益没有被合理分享,部分人群过度占有公有资产收益损害了全体国民的利益,也造成了社会阶层的分化。解决收入分配问题需要在优先消除分配不公的基础上,通过完善再分配手段逐渐缩小收入差距,从而形成既公平又合理的收入分配格局。

关键词:收入分配  要素资本化  分配不公  基尼系数

Problems of Income Distribution and Capitalization of Productive Factors--Where is the key of income distribution problems in China?

Abstract: To observe China’s problems of income distribution from an international perspective, it can be found that China’s income inequality does not show significant difference from the developed countries when it is measured by first distribution (market distribution). The difference between China and the developed countries is that the inequality in developed countries reduced greatly while China’s inequality remains almost the same after redistribution. So, it is not difficult to conclude that the problem of high income inequality in China is mainly contributed to the ineffectiveness of redistribution measure. However, the problems of income distribution in China can’t be explained only by the increasing income difference itself, the problems are more rooted in the unfairness of income distribution, which mainly results from the capitalization of land, natural resources, enterprises or even public goods such as express high way. To solve the problems of income distribution, the priority is to swipe out the unfairness of distribution, and reduce the income inequality by more sophisticated redistribution measures.  

Key words: Income distribution, capitalization of factors, unfairness of distribution, Gini coefficient.

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文章出处:经济学动态,2013年第4期