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农民工新政下的流动人口社会保险:来自中国四大城市的证据
文章作者:郭菲;张展新  发布时间:2015-11-27 09:27:51

摘要: 中国在过去的10年里进行了城乡福利保障一体化的政策改革。文章基于2008年在四个城市所作的"迁移和流动劳动力与中国大城市发展"调查数据,研究这一系列的新政策对农民工和其他迁移人口的影响,尤其是对他们参加医疗保险,养老保险,失业保险,以及工伤事故保险做一深入分析。研究表明:经过十多年新政策的执行,农村迁移人口或农民工参与社会保险的概率仍然大大的低于市民迁移人口和城市本地居民。迁移人口是否参与各种社会保险项目与他们的就业状况紧密相关。本文的结论显示:中国已经开始把迁移人口的社会保障纳入了整体社会发展的范畴。在"刘易斯转折"与劳动力成本上升的背景下,相关政策应考虑由此所带来的社会保障成本的增加。
 
关键词: 农民工; 迁移劳动力; 社会保险; 社会保障; 中国人口

One Decade of the Reform of Social Insurance and Social Protection Policies for Migrants: Evidence from Four Major Cities in China

Abstract: China started to implement a series of“new policies on rural migrants”or“rural - urban unified welfare and social protection reform”in early 2000. This paper,based on a study in four large Chinese cities,examines the impacts of these new policies on migrants’participation in a range of social insurance schemes,such as health care,old age pension,unemployment,and work - related injury.The results strongly suggest that after one decade of social policy reform,rural migrant workers’likelihood of participating in social insurance and protection program is still much lower than that of urban migrants and urban local residents,which indicates the legacy of China’s rural /urban dualistic social welfare system is still in place.Migrant workers’participation in these social insurance and protection schemes is closely related to their employment status,especially to formal employment contract.This study indicates that China has started to integrate its migration policies into its overall economic development strategies.With China’s approaching so - called“Lewis Turning Point”,it is inevitable that labour cost will increase.The increase will not only include higher wages,but also should include the cost in servicing and maintaining the labour force,including migrant workers,such as the social protection /insurance programs that are jointly contributed by the state,employers and workers.

Keywords:Rural - to - urban Migration,Migrant Workers,Social Insurance Program,Social Welfare and Protection Program,China’s Population

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文章出处:人口研究,2013年第3期