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代际差异、老龄化与不平等
文章作者:张车伟;向晶  发布时间:2015-11-27 09:27:51

内容提要:理论上看,同批出生的人,其收入差距应该会随着年龄的增加而加大,但我国目前年轻人的不平等程度却高于中老年人。本文将个人收入或财富变化同社会不平等联系起来,分析人口构成以及代际差异对我国不平等变化的影响。我们利用城镇住户收支调查数据的研究结果显示:虽然我国同批出生人口的不平等水平会随着年龄的增长而提高;但是不同时期出生人口间的代际差异更大,从而使得2003-2009年间我国居民消费不平等的提高过程中,有59.23%是由代际差异造成的。如果说代内收入差距更多地是由市场或者个人努力、禀赋条件等差异造成的,那么,代际差异则更多地是由外部政策环境等外生因素造成的;与调整代内差距相比,调整代际间差距损伤效率的程度会较小。因此,我国旨在缩小收入差距的政策今后应该更加关注代际差异的影响,尤其要对因出生年代不同所导致的收入差距加以调整,通过出台财产税等直接税增强税收政策对收入差距的调节所用。

关键词: 代际差异  老龄化 不平等

Aging,Intergenerational Differences and Inequality

Abstract:Theoretically, the income or consumption inequality will increase with age by a fixed cohort; but in China, the younger faces higher inequality than the older. This article analysis the impact of demographic dynamics and cohort effect on the inequality, on the perspective of personal income or wealth linked with the social development. Using urban household income and expenditure survey data, the results show: the income and consumption inequality is increasing with age by a fixed cohort in the fact; however, cohort effect contributes more on the rising inequality. During 2003-2009, there are 59.23% caused by cohort effects. When the intra-generational income gap is caused by the market, individual efforts, endowments dispersion, what implies the adjustment of intra-generational income gap will be more efficient than the adjustment of income inequality intra-cohort, for the policy and economic environment as exogenous factors. In order to narrow the income gap, the government should be more concerned about the future impact of intergenerational disparity, and using property tax and other direct taxes policy to narrow the income gap among cohorts.

Keywords:intergenerational disparity; aging; inequality

JEL Classification:D63  I30  J19 

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文章出处:劳动经济研究,2014年第2卷第1期,p3-25